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Mohenjo-daro

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the archaeological site Mohenjo-daro. For the upcoming film, seeMohenjo Daro (film).
Mohenjo-daro
موهن جو دڙو (Sindhi)
موئن جو دڑو (Urdu)
Mohenjo-daro-2010.jpg

The excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro in present-day Sindh, Pakistan.
Mohenjo-daro is located in Pakistan

Mohenjo-daro
Shown within Pakistan
Location Larkana, Sindh, Pakistan
Coordinates 27°19′45″N 68°08′20″ECoordinates: 27°19′45″N 68°08′20″E
Type Settlement
Area 200 ha (490 acres)[1]
History
Founded 25th century BCE
Abandoned 19th century BCE
Cultures Indus Valley Civilization
Official name Archaeological Ruins of Mohenjo-daro
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iii
Designated 1980 (4th session)
Reference no. 138
State Party  Pakistan
Region Asia-Pacific

Mohenjo-daro (Sindhi: موهن جو دڙو‎, Urdu: موئن جو دڑو‎, IPA: [muˑənⁱ dʑoˑ d̪əɽoˑ], lit. Mound of the Dead;English pronunciation: /mˌhɛn. ˈdɑː.r/) is an archeological site in the province of Sindh,Pakistan. Built around 2500 BCE, it was one of the largest settlements of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, and one of the world’s earliest major urban settlements, contemporaneous with the civilizations ofancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Crete, and Norte Chico . Mohenjo-daro was abandoned in the 19th century BCE, and was not rediscovered until 1922. Significant excavation has since been conducted at the site of the city, which was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980.[2] The site is currently threatened by erosion and improper restoration.[3]

Name[edit]

Mohenjo-daro, the modern name for the site, simply means Mound of the Dead in Sindhi. The city’s original name is unknown, but analysis of a Mohenjo-daro seal suggests a possible ancient name, Kukkutarma (“the city [-rma] of the cockerel [kukkuta]”).[4] Cock-fighting may have had ritual and religious significance for the city, with domesticated chickens bred there for sacred purposes, rather than as a food source.[5] Mohenjo-daro may have been a point of diffusion for the eventual worldwide domestication of chickens.[citation needed]

Location[edit]

Map showing the sites and extent of the Indus Valley Civilisation and the location of the Mohenjo-Daro site.

Mohenjo-daro is located in Larkana District on the right bank of the Indus River in Sindh, Pakistan,[6] on aPleistocene ridge in the middle of the flood plain of the Indus River Valley, around 28 kilometres (17 mi) from the town of Larkana. The ridge was prominent during the time of the Indus Valley Civilization, allowing the city to stand above the surrounding plain, but the flooding of the river has since buried most of the ridge in deposited silt. The site occupies a central position between the Indus River and the Ghaggar-Hakra River. The Indus still flows to the east of the site, but the riverbed of the Ghaggar-Hakra on the western side is now dry.[7]

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