|موهن جو دڙو (Sindhi)
موئن جو دڑو (Urdu)
The excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro in present-day Sindh, Pakistan.
|Location||Larkana, Sindh, Pakistan|
|Area||200 ha (490 acres)|
|Founded||25th century BCE|
|Abandoned||19th century BCE|
|Cultures||Indus Valley Civilization|
|Official name||Archaeological Ruins of Mohenjo-daro|
|Designated||1980 (4th session)|
Mohenjo-daro (Sindhi: موهن جو دڙو, Urdu: موئن جو دڑو, IPA: [muˑənⁱ dʑoˑ d̪əɽoˑ], lit. Mound of the Dead;English pronunciation: /moʊˌhɛn.dʒoʊ ˈdɑː.roʊ/) is an archeological site in the province of Sindh,Pakistan. Built around 2500 BCE, it was one of the largest settlements of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, and one of the world’s earliest major urban settlements, contemporaneous with the civilizations ofancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Crete, and Norte Chico . Mohenjo-daro was abandoned in the 19th century BCE, and was not rediscovered until 1922. Significant excavation has since been conducted at the site of the city, which was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980. The site is currently threatened by erosion and improper restoration.
Mohenjo-daro, the modern name for the site, simply means Mound of the Dead in Sindhi. The city’s original name is unknown, but analysis of a Mohenjo-daro seal suggests a possible ancient name, Kukkutarma (“the city [-rma] of the cockerel [kukkuta]”). Cock-fighting may have had ritual and religious significance for the city, with domesticated chickens bred there for sacred purposes, rather than as a food source. Mohenjo-daro may have been a point of diffusion for the eventual worldwide domestication of chickens.
Mohenjo-daro is located in Larkana District on the right bank of the Indus River in Sindh, Pakistan, on aPleistocene ridge in the middle of the flood plain of the Indus River Valley, around 28 kilometres (17 mi) from the town of Larkana. The ridge was prominent during the time of the Indus Valley Civilization, allowing the city to stand above the surrounding plain, but the flooding of the river has since buried most of the ridge in deposited silt. The site occupies a central position between the Indus River and the Ghaggar-Hakra River. The Indus still flows to the east of the site, but the riverbed of the Ghaggar-Hakra on the western side is now dry.